Hendrik Weimer, Augustine Kshetrimayum, and Román Orús
Rev. Mod. Phys. 93, 015008 (2021)
This article reviews theoretical methods to deal with interacting quantum particles that are in contact with their environment and are thus described by a master equation rather than a Schrödinger equation. The similarities and differences are discussed between the pursuit of pure many-body ground states and mixed steady states by different methods, and an outlook is provided on the advances toward simulation of large open many-body system.
Ferruccio Feruglio and Andrea Romanino
Rev. Mod. Phys. 93, 015007 (2021)
Quarks and leptons, which have the same electroweak interactions, markedly differ in their masses and mixing patterns. Neutrino masses are very small while quark masses are large and the lepton mixing matrix contains two large angles while quark mixings are small. Concentrating on the lepton sector, this review presents the flavor puzzles with effective field theories. Beyond standard model theories are discussed that contain organizing principles designed to provide natural explanations of neutrino masses and mixings.
Salvador Barraza-Lopez et al.
Rev. Mod. Phys. 93, 011001 (2021)
Monolayers of group-IV monochalcogenides, such as GeS, GeSe, SnS, SnSe, and SnTe, display interesting properties such as ferroelectricity, ferroelasticity, and unusual spin textures. This makes these materials interesting from both fundamental and applied perspectives. This Colloquium explains recent progress in the experimental characterization and theoretical understanding as well as their potential for device applications.
V. Shiltsev and F. Zimmermann
Rev. Mod. Phys. 93, 015006 (2021)
Particle accelerators have been engines of discovery for many decades. The most powerful ones are used in particle physics where intense particle beams collide to study new particles. This has led to groundbreaking discoveries in our understanding of matter and forces. In this article the key concepts behind the development of such colliders are reviewed and a historical perspective is provided of the evolution of these machines. Approaches for next-generation colliders are presented and technology developments for far-future colliders that will have the further benefit of enabling new applications in the use of accelerators for science and society are discussed.
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